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Keto diet: A Complete Step-by-Step Guide on How to Start


  • Keto diet: A Complete Step-by-Step Guide on How to Start

    The Basics for Confident KETO-START

    If you still cannot believe and the thought clearly pulsates in your head: "how can fat help us gain health if the last decades all the pages of the press and TV screens say the opposite?»
    Here there are links to studies that prove that the RIGHT fats are the basis of our health. Fats help in the treatment of various diseases:

    A positive effect of carbohydrate restriction on metabolic syndrome

    Research on weight loss on high-fat diets
    Metabolic syndrome and low-carb diets
    Carbohydrate restriction and its effect on type 2 diabetes
    Effect of KETO on type 2 diabetes
    More about KETO and diabetes
    KETO and its effect on the cardiovascular system
    Association of insulin resistance with CVD risk
    Low-fat diets and cholesterol
    The positive effect of KETO on brain disease
    About the anti-inflammatory effect of KETO
    Sugar and inflammation

    FAT is not the enemy. In fact, carbohydrates are behind the problems with your health and the health of your family.

    By making this type of food your lifestyle, you will 100% enjoy the benefits of keto:
    • Adjust your blood sugar level, simultaneously eliminating the need for frequent snacking and unhealthy relationships with food
    • Discover the world of whole and healthy foods by eliminating those that lead to inflammation and impair your health
    • Get rid of mood swings caused by spikes in insulin and sugar
    • Normalize your hormonal background
    • Reduce your weight comfortably
    • Gain knowledge about your body's metabolic processes that will allow you to finally understand your body's language and needs.

    Click image for larger version  Name:	checkmark.png Views:	0 Size:	52.9 KB ID:	297What is ketosis

    In ketosis, our body switches from getting energy from glucose to energy synthesized from ketones, becoming a real fat-burning machine!
    But there are two types of ketosis: food (or nutritional) and therapeutic (therapeutic).

    Although the basis of both is low carbs and high fat, in this guide we talk about food ketosis based on HEALTHY, WHOLE foods with minimal industrial activity processing.

    That allows you to adhere to this diet, almost all your life, being the basis of not only effective weight loss but also significantly improve key health indicators in general.

    Ketosis is achieved by reducing carbohydrate intake and moderate protein intake for "depriving" the body of glucose, but fat coming from food in sufficient quantities maintains our energy level.

    In conditions of glucose deficiency, our body starts the use of fat as fuel and the production of ketones, which are the basis for energy production. That is, the processes of catagenesis are triggered by low carbohydrates (lack of glucose), and not by high-fat consumption!

    When you are in ketosis, your blood sugar, insulin, and triglyceride levels decrease, and your good HDL cholesterol levels increase, while the internal stored fat is "eaten" as fuel.

    Why does ketosis allow you to lose weight?

    When we eat carbohydrates, the body runs on glucose, which is limited by our glycogen in the liver and muscles and is only a couple of thousand calories. The body understands that 2000 kcal is about a one-day supply of your energy. Therefore, it is extremely unprofitable to part with them, it is easier to make you refuel with glucose again.

    While with fat, our stock averages from 45,000 (Forty-five thousand calories!!!!
    Just imagine this figure!)

    Inquisitive minds will ask "Where does this data come from? Where's the evidence?"

    Now I will explain: you have a small excess weight, for example, 5-6 kg. This is fat because there are no extra bones or extra muscles.
    1 gram of fat provides your body with 9 grams of energy. By simple mathematical calculations... 5000 gr x 9 = 45,000 calories
    And if you have 10 kg of excess weight? And 15?
    And only the state of ketosis allows us to extract energy at any time, even when the energy from food has long run out. This is why the body never approaches the mode of energy starvation.

    The state of ketosis provides us with a reliable, almost uninterrupted source of high-quality fuel for obtaining sustainable energy by every cell of our beloved body.

    For a smooth transition to further information and its effective learning, we will look at the digestion process in more detail.

    Here is a brief description of the processes that occur in the body when we take food

    The mouth is the starting point in the digestion process.
    Grinding with teeth, the food is moistened with saliva, which contains enzymes that begin the process of decomposition of carbohydrates in the mouth. At the same time, preparation for insulin production begins. Chewing also grinds fats and proteins but does nothing to destroy their molecular structure.

    Esophagus. Crushed and moistened with saliva, food is not dumped like a stone into the stomach but is sent down the esophagus due to undulating movements of narrowing and relaxing certain sections of its walls, which move the food forward. These movements are called peristalsis. The same movements are created by the intestines to push food to the exit.

    Stomach. This is the second food processing point. Fats and proteins begin to decompose in the stomach after treatment with hydrochloric acid and pepsin. The function of the acid is to decompose the complex and neutralize the dangerous.

    The protein structures of viruses, bacteria, and parasites must also be neutralized with acid in the stomach. That is why it is so important to have a normal acidity of gastric juice. Therefore, taking apple cider vinegar or lemon water should become a good habit not only on keto!

    Liver. A workhorse for fat metabolism. Bile secretion is produced by liver cells - hepatocytes. The main function of bile is to ensure the change of gastric digestion to intestinal digestion.

    The liver produces up to 2 liters of bile per day. It is important to understand that the liver always produces bile, regardless of the diet we follow. Bile is collected in the liver ducts, and from there it enters the gall bladder. In addition to bile, the liver produces bile lipase.
    Pancreas. Insulin production is not the only function of the pancreas. It also produces one of the subspecies of the enzyme lipase. It is along with bile, is the most important enzyme in the digestion of fats.

    Gallbladder. Accumulates bile and sends it through the duct to the duodenum to emulsify pre-processed fats in the stomach. Bile enzymes act on individual triglycerides to release fatty acids.

    Unlike the liver, bile leaves the bladder only when food enters the intestines, and only if there is fat in your diet. Thus, low-fat diets are the cause of the stagnation of bile and the formation of stones.

    Duodenum. Thanks to the work done in the mouth and stomach, the food is a ground pulp that enters the 20-centimeter duodenum and is processed by bile enzymes for further destruction and extraction of nutrients.
    Intestine. A tube up to 4 meters long, lined with millions of villi that absorb nutrients, sending them into the bloodstream.

    Each villus has cells with microvilli on its surface and this increases the absorption several times. Here is the final process of the disintegration of nutrient compounds into elementary components. The small intestine synthesizes vitamins and certain hormones.

    This is why the use of gluten, which is essentially a glue, is so harmful to the body. It simply sticks together with the villi and microvilli, preventing the absorption of nutrients even in people who do not have a diagnosis of celiac disease!

    Large intestine. Here, in contrast to the small intestine, there is no absorption of nutrients, except water and salt. In the large intestine, there is a branch - the Appendix, which is, on the one hand, a reservoir for useful microflora, and on the other - it contains a huge number of lymphatic vessels. And it is the lymph that is responsible for our immunity.

    The main function of the large intestine is to seal feces and undigested food fragments and transport them out. From 1 kg of biomass received from the small intestine, about 100 g of solid waste is produced here. This compaction occurs due to the absorption of water and the microflora eating fiber.
    Dense fecal masses are excreted.

    Click image for larger version  Name:	checkmark.png Views:	37 Size:	52.9 KB ID:	298Metabolism

    Metabolism from the Greek - transformation or change. In biology, metabolism is understood as the process of metabolism in the body to maintain life. These processes allow us to grow, reproduce, and change according to environmental conditions.

    As a result of metabolism, complex organic compounds are converted into simple ones with energy release (catabolic reactions), and from simple ones they are synthesized into more complex ones with energy expenditure (anabolism).

    This is very similar to how calories are burned, but the process of metabolism is much deeper than just extracting and converting energy from one form to another.

    Metabolic reactions focus on creating molecular structures when building cells and tissues or destroying them for use as an energy source, and other factors also take part in them:
    Internal: vitamins, hormones, enzymes.
    The quality of the food; Time of admission; Place of acceptance; Distractions (TV, smartphone, newspaper)
    Psycho-emotional: Thoughts while eating and feelings or your attitude to food (you break the rules, cheat or eat something forbidden for you); Your relationship with food in the past (strict diets, eating disorders, etc.)
    Hereditary and hormonal: Your genes and heredity; what stage of the cycle you are in; whether you have an imbalance of hormones and systems.

    A lot of chronic symptoms of malaise that you experience for years are an imbalance in the metabolic system as a result of not only not assimilating all the "useful and necessary" things that you feed yourself, but also simply the wrong operation of the metabolic system. Here are some of them.

    Plateau. If your body doesn't get enough energy and nutrients needed for balance, it slows down to conserve energy.

    Fatigue. There is a lot of food, but it is poorly absorbed, resulting in a lack of energy necessary for movement and action.

    Poor sleep and unstable emotional state. Although sleep is a natural process of restoring energy balance, the body does not have enough strength to regulate relaxation reactions or control surging emotions of anger, irritation, tearfulness, depression, and anxiety.

    Inability to conceive. You are so exhausted and do not have the supply of nutrients and energy for the birth and development of a new life.
    But fortunately, metabolism is a changing system and we can change it. Moreover, we can get an instant reaction from the body to some factors, but something has a prolonged effect.

    In the modern world, people are moving further away from the basic/correct principles of metabolism, which have been configured for tens of thousands of years of evolution, but with the help of keto nutrition, it is possible not only to lose weight and significantly improve health indicators but also to reprogram your body to " factory settings».

    We stopped listening to our body's signals, stopped understanding its responses. And problems arise when we try to act "in the name of health", misunderstand or completely ignore what the body is trying to say, either as a result of a lack of knowledge or as a result of losing our connection with ourselves.

    And this becomes similar to the relationship between teenagers and parents when adults like and say everything correctly, but the teenager for certain reasons (I'm not talking here about doing specifically for harm or evil!) does the opposite. In response to this, the parents stand in a pose of "Oh, you're so! Then you are punished!"

    A specific example from ordinary (not keto) life):
    Your body's expenditure = 2000 kcal. And you decide, I should lose weight, so I sit on a diet, limiting the intake to 1500.
    The deficit is the process of adapting to a new environment and the body, arranged under 1500 calories, slows down all the processes of life: saves energy, therefore, a pulse rate, respiration depth reduce, all systems that require increased energy turn off, stamina, ability to concentrate, etc. That is, it just regulates the life processes so that the energy, which is necessary for life corresponds to the received 1500 kcal.
    After a while, you realize that the process of losing weight somehow does not go, and you cannot reduce the calorie content yet (otherwise, this constant hunger becomes dangerous to even for others! You're not you when you're hungry).

    Therefore, the second step is added physical activity, so that you can definitely overcome the stagnation and finally burn all this hated fat. Therefore, the deficit is even deeper.

    But our body has its own idea of what weight and composition of the body should be ideal to ensure vital activity and be able to produce healthy offspring. Because it's NATURE! And it doesn't care that you are aiming for a certain weight that you think is ideal.

    Therefore, the mechanisms of not only conservation but also energy storage (that is, adipose tissue) are included.

    This "the fewer calories the better" approach, applied without knowledge of our hormones and the processes that occur in the body, will lead to even more confusion in the metabolism.

    Understanding what is best for you is a master key that will hack your metabolism and allow you to debug every link of the chain once and for all:

    Our body has an amazing feedback system to warn us of imbalances before they get out of control.

    But alas, in modern life, we have lost the ability to hear these signals, or even vice versa, we deliberately drown them out, for example, with medications. Heartburn - we take an antacid. A headache - we drink a pill. But in fact, we do not eliminate the cause. I really hope you understand what I'm talking about.

    Here are 9 markers that indicate the optimal functioning of your metabolism.
    Listen to your body and if you regularly observe noticeable fluctuations and note changes in three or more, then this is your body's way of telling you, " something is going wrong!" and your metabolism needs support.
    1. Energy
    2. Hunger
    3. Craving for some products
    4. Water retention
    5. Weight change
    6. Sexuality
    7. Mood
    8. Digestion
    9. Menstruation

    And the main rule here is to use metabolic markers as a possible signal of problems and use these messages to set up communication with your body.

    A calorie deficit at the very beginning of use works on almost any diet, and a moderate deficit works even better, but the ketogenic diet allows us to lose weight not just in a calorie deficit, this food changes our metabolism.
    When we are fully keto-adapted and use fat, rather than glucose, as energy when limiting food calories (for example, during interval fasting), we do not experience a deficit at the energy level.

    And we continue to get it from fat depots whenever food intake decreases. Remember the example of the 45,000 calories we carry in the body?
    That is, even within the framework of keto, you should listen carefully and try to understand, and if something is wrong - stop and fix it.

    Click image for larger version  Name:	checklist.png Views:	36 Size:	296.9 KB ID:	300So, we smoothly came to the point where we will consider why KETO gives such results and advantages compared to all the methods that we know and have tried before!

    * Instead of limiting calories by reducing the quality of food by reducing fat, on KETO we use the highest quality, whole foods without processing, naturally creating a calorie deficit that has no negative impact on our hormones, nor on our mood and well-being.
    * Without violence, KETO allows you to change the metabolism, improve health indicators, setting up all the body's systems for self-healing.
    * KETO improves us not only inside, but also outside. Our weight, our appearance, our mood, our relationship with others-changes will not take long, in the end - it will be achieved easily.
    Regardless of what you want to get with KETO in the end: better health or weight loss, we need to always stay in touch with your body, checking the metabolic markers described earlier.

    1. Analyze your health in terms of metabolic markers.
    2. Write down the changes you noted.

    About deficit and surplus

    Ketosis allows you to use your own fat as fuel when the energy from food has already run out (i.e., being in a calorie deficit), and therefore lose weight.

    The production of ketone products gives us energy and if your food energy source does not run out, then your internal fat depots will not be consumed. That is, you save weight.

    While in ketosis, it is possible to increase weight by increasing the amount of fat in the diet and customizing the required protein for building muscles using strength training, as well as using the tactics of cyclic ketogenic nutrition. This changes the aesthetics of your body and you become heavier not due to body fat, but due to increased muscle mass.

    A comfortable deficit that will help you lose weight without slowing down metabolic processes is from 15 to 20%. Increasing your caloric intake by more than 20% will help you gain weight.

    But when you follow the principles of keto nutrition, this rule changes a little. Here, the main lever is not to change the total calorie content but to change the amount of fat consumed which in the end will affect the total calories.

    Many people are afraid of "falling out of ketosis" if they eat little fat - this is a misconception
    After all, the state of ketosis is not provided by fatty foods, but by the absence of glucose as an available source of energy.

    With the same indicators of protein and carbohydrates, you can vary the amount of fat so that you feel quite energetic, full, achieving a reduction, or vice versa-weight gain.

    The second available way to create a deficit is the method of interval fasting, which we will talk about in the following blocks. A very important clarification here is that the calorie deficit that is created by reducing fat must pass after full keto-adaptation.

    During the first time, the body is not very good at extracting energy from fat depots, so enough fat should be supplied with food for smooth operation.

    We are all different, and there is no universal recipe in grams or percentages for everyone, the use of which guarantees you a 100% reduction or weight gain. There are basic principles and laws of nature, but there are also individual reactions.

    Some people enter ketosis on a much larger amount of carbohydrates than 30 grams, but some are experiencing difficulties with 20 grams. And this once again proves that we are all different. Only your thoughtful work and adjustment of yourself and your metabolism will allow you to finally get the result!

    Because the main idea I'm trying to convey to you is:
    KETO is not about weight, KETO is about health, about healthy relationships with food, about respect and love for your body, and about establishing feedback with it. Even though I always pay attention to the importance of compliance with proteins/fats/carbs ratio, I suggest using knowledge about the basic caloric content of the diet as the starting point of your relationship with weight.

    If you are one of those people who are used to keeping everything under control and have decided to count proteins, fats, carbs, then I draw your attention to the fact that the calculations and their compliance should be comfortable. Instead of manic adding every crumb to the calculator and following the calorie norm every day.

    Someday, it may be more than necessary, and it's okay, over time, you will learn to understand the body and its signals.

    How do I get away with counting?

    A 30-day meal plan has been developed specifically for the program. It is made up of the average calorie content of 1600 kcal and usually contains up to 60-75 g. protein and about 30 grams of pure carbohydrates and this amount is enough to reach the state of ketosis.

    In the first days, your weight and volume will decrease due to water loss. So you're on the right track.
    Stay in touch with yourself, record these changes in your diary, note the reactions of your body to various ingredients, as well as your feelings of hunger and satiety, and then you can develop your own strategy to achieve the result.

    That is, to learn not to count, you need to concentrate on your feelings (satiety/hunger) and remember what your 30 grams of various carbohydrates in a plate look like, cooked according to the food plan. ,
    How much, for example, does a portion of salad take, how do fried vegetables look, and how do purees look?
    Regardless of whether you count daily calories or not, weigh yourself once a week and take body measurements, enter the results in your success diary to see the numbers in the dynamics and, if necessary, make adjustments.

    Once a month, you can recalculate proteins, fats, carbs for reconciliation with the exchange rate
    Towards the end of the first month, you can start experimenting with the amount of fat to create a small deficit.

    Click image for larger version  Name:	checkmark.png Views:	35 Size:	52.9 KB ID:	301Keto Diet Food List

    Products consist of macronutrients: proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.
    Some products contain only one of them, for example, oil is always only fat, or honey is 100 % carbohydrate.
    Meat, vegetables, and fruits contain proteins, fats, and carbohydrates in various combinations
    Source of protein

    Give preference to fatty species and pieces. Moreover, meat with fat is much cheaper than dietary tenderloin.
    Village lamb, beef, pork, chicken, goose, duck, turkey, meat of northern animals (deer, wild goats, etc.)
    Buy meat with bones or collect all the bones, of which not only you can, but also need to cook the bone broth, pour into containers and freeze for the future.
    All types of offal: liver, lungs, kidneys, tongue, and heart must also be included in your diet. Try different cooking methods to find the recipe that will appeal to you.

    Sea, wild catch, even if nondescript in appearance, will be preferable to artificially grown beautiful salmon.
    Pink salmon, sockeye salmon, chum salmon, catfish, saury, char, mackerel, herring, pollock, tuna, halibut, cod, sea bass, and dorado (wild).
    Canned fish can also be used preferably in brine or its own juice, and not in vegetable (the cheapest) oil.

    Squid, octopus, scallops, caviar, mussels, and shrimp (with caution, because they are often grown artificially). Seafood does not contain enough fat, mostly it is a source of protein, but we can correct the situation with various sauces and dressings

    Sour-milk products and cheeses
    Cream, sour cream, the fattest cottage cheese (with caution in the first month), hard and fatty cheese varieties, high-quality cream-curd cheeses (such as Philadelphia)

    Proper fats are the basis of the ketogenic diet. Fats from all types of animals, butter 80-82% fat content, ghee, coconut and olive cold-pressed, avocado oil, cocoa butter, almond
    Sometimes: peanut, sesame, pumpkin, flaxseed (due to rapid oxidation)

    NO refined seed oils: sunflower, corn, soy, mustard, grape seed, safflower, cotton

    Nuts and flour from them: walnuts, pecans, macadamia, almonds, pistachios, pumpkin, sesame, flax and sunflower seeds, chia

    Fruits and vegetables:
    Avocado, olives
    All vegetables grown above ground, dark leafy types of greens and salads
    In limited quantities: carrots, onions, beets, sweet potatoes

    Pork skin and its crumbs (popular in Asia) - can be used for breading
    Food yeast (not to be confused with bakery and beer!) as a thickener and as a source of vitamins
    Psyllium is a thickener in pastries and beverages, a source of fiber.
    Spices and scented herbs (read the composition - sometimes sugar and starch are added).
    Tea, coffee, chicory, mineral water, herbal infusions (without sugar).
    Sweetener: xylitol, erythritol, stevia extract / stevioside.
    Shirataki noodles and rice.

    Study the offers of supermarkets, vegetarian and healthy food stores, as well as those who sell Thai cosmetics (you can order coconut oil, flour from them).

    Often keto is perceived as a strict restriction: porridge, bread, candy, fruit-EVERYTHING is forbidden.
    Friends, look at the list of allowed foods and be happy that instead of garbage, your diet will contain a sufficient amount of natural, whole foods.

    The keto diet can (and should) be balanced. A properly prepared menu covers most of the body's needs for minerals and vitamins. After all, keto vegetables contain many more of them than fruits. For example, compare oranges and sauerkraut or broccoli for the content of vitamin C or magnesium, and you will see that the role of fruit in "fortification" is too exaggerated.

    It is also a common myth that keto is insanely expensive, due to exotic products that are rarely found in regular stores. One of the major expense items in keto nutrition is baking products. But over time, you feel less and less craving even for keto snacks. And the number of ingredients used is many times less than traditional sugar and flour. In normal recipes, sugar and flour are measured in glasses, and I put 2-2.5 times less sweetener than sugar in my cupcakes that I bake for home.

    And coconut flour, in comparison with wheat, has an increased hygroscopicity, it retains twice as much moisture as usual. As a result, the same cake, instead of 200-250 grams of wheat flour, will take 80-100 grams of coconut.

    Well, taking into account the fact that you eat much less (2-5 times a day and without snacking) compared to eating every 2-3 hours, the result is a saving in the total amount of food costs!

    So, keto nutrition is primarily whole foods, with minimal industrial processing. Therefore, give preference to local, farm products, preferably with gentle growing technologies. Fresh meat can be bought in the nearest suburb, for example by teaming up with friends or relatives.

    Frozen vegetables in the offseason are a great alternative to imported ones.

    Well, life hack where to take fat for cooking I have already shared above.

    Carefully read all the labels in the store, because sugar and other carbohydrates can hide in completely unexpected places.

    If not all family members are ready to part with potatoes, pasta, and sweets, then put all these products in opaque containers with tight lids and keep out of sight for the first time. Following the prepared plans makes it much easier for you to stay in ketosis during the first month, but I don't think this is the only reason you started the diet.

    The skill of planning and making your diet is very important. This planning is very convenient
    Firstly, you relieve yourself of stress what to eat during the week.
    Secondly, you can create a menu in such a way that you can spend minimal time in the kitchen. On the example of my food plan, you can see that some dishes are prepared for 2-3 days and this really reduces the time spent in the kitchen.
    Thirdly, it saves not only time for cooking, but also time for shopping. And most importantly, money. You don't buy products on impulse. You have a plan ))
    And of course, doing this planning, you collect a base of the most popular, favorite recipes.
    In addition to developing a general menu, it is also an important skill to create a diet that meets all your macro needs.

    To make a macronutrient-balanced diet, you need to read the calorie tables of products.
    Following the prepared plans makes it much easier for you to stay in ketosis during the first month. And later, understanding the principles of making a diet, you can easily adapt any menu for yourself and your tasks.

    Click image for larger version  Name:	checkmark.png Views:	38 Size:	52.9 KB ID:	302How to start a practical keto?

    Just relax. If you thought before that keto is a complex calculation, strict compliance with grams, strict restriction in the choice of products, and constant cooking. Then very carefully study the whole article.
    Sure, keto can be very easy to use.

    And I will share with you a few techniques for setting up a comfortable keto.
    After all, we are all different, someone needs a calorie calculation, and someone prefers a softer option.

    At the beginning of my keto journey, I read a lot about macros, percentages, grams, proteins, fat, carbohydrates - very responsibly approached the case, believed proteins, fat, carbohydrates adhered to the macros* but after a couple of months, I left weights and stress that this method had brought in my life.
    * Macros are short for macronutrients, i.e. proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.

    Over time, I thankfully stopped treating food as a punishment or encouragement for myself and stopped seeing even keto food as something bad or good. Surely you are familiar with such feelings.
    At first, when practicing keto, I made sure not to exceed my calorie allowance, and if this happened, the next day I tried to compensate for yesterday's excess with today's deficit.
    For men: Current weight/0.4535 x 16
    For women: Current weight / 0.4535 x 15
    Or the Harris-Benedict formula
    For men: 88.36 + (13.4 x kg) + (4.8 x cm) - (5.7 x Years) *
    For women: 447.6 + (9.2 x kg) + (3.1 x cm) - (4.3 x Years) *
    "The results are adjusted for physical activity:
    Office worker-1,2
    Light training 1-3 times a week-1,375
    Average training sessions 3-5 times a week-1.55
    Intensive training 5-7 times a week-1,725
    Hard physical work-1.9

    After making these calculations, you will have a rough idea of the level of your calorie allowance.
    This figure is needed to adjust your diet to the amount of food that will be sufficient to achieve a state of ketogenesis and comfortable well-being. And also to have effective tools for creating a deficit or surplus of calories.

    The next step is customizing to achieve ketosis.
    There are 2 options for configuring macronutrients.
    At first, I used the classic percentage ratio, 20% protein, 75% fat, and 5% carbohydrates.
    20% Protein = Kcal x 20 / 100 / 4
    75% Fat = Kcal x 75 / 100 / 9
    5% Carbohydrates = Kcal x 5 /100 /4 *
    So, with a base calorie level of 1900, the result looked like this:
    20% protein = 90 gr. 75% fat = 150 gr. 5% carbohydrates = 23 g
    * proteins and carbohydrates give 4 grams of energy (kcal), and fats-9 grams.

    But over time, I realized that more accurate results are provided by a personal setting in grams. It can be done, by the way, after you have entered ketosis with the help of a food plan.
    20 to 30 grams of pure carbohydrates'
    From 1 to 1.25 g "protein per 1 kg of ideal body weight'"
    The rest is given to fats.
    * usually, 20 g of carbohydrates are used in therapeutic ketosis, in the treatment of metabolic syndrome, cancer, and neurological diseases. 30 g is the optimal level for healthy people.
    as for protein, 0.8-2 g is usually used. I believe that 0.8 is too little. And a lack of protein is just as undesirable as an excess of it.

    Depending on your level of physical activity, you can adjust the protein to your needs: if you are actively engaged in strength training, you may need 1.5 or even 2 grams, but on average for a normal not very athletic life, it is enough to keep the protein in the range of 1 -1.2 g

    ** ideal mass refers to the weight that you consider acceptable, the so-called dry mass. Or you can use the formula Growth minus 110 = Dry (ideal) body weight. For Example, your weight is 75 kg, you are not particularly friends with sports and the calculated base metabolism is 1800 kcal, but you would like to weigh for example 60 kg.

    Then the setting looks like this:
    Proteins 1 g x 60 kg = 60 g
    Carbohydrates = 30 g
    Fat = (1800 kcal - (60 x 4 + 30 x 4)) / 9 = 160 g
    In this example, the percentage of proteins, fat, carbohydrates looks different from the classic keto ratio and is 13%, 80%, and 7%

    If you feel that this amount of protein in the diet is not enough for you, you do not eat enough, you can vary in the direction of increase:

    Proteins 1.2 g x 60 kg = 72 g
    Carbohydrates = 30 g
    Fat = (1800 kcal - (72 x 4 + 30 x 4)) / 9 = 154 g
    As you can see, the numbers here are different 16/77/7

    And if you add a little sport, then the number of proteins, fat, carbohydrates will change:
    Proteins 1.5 g x 60 = 90 g
    Carbohydrates = 30 g
    Fat will account for 169 g = (2000 kcal - (90 x 4 + 30 x 4)) / 9
    In this example, the ratio of proteins, fat, carbohydrates as a percentage of total calories looks like this: 18/76/6. You can choose any of the suggested options to choose a personal ratio of macronutrients and get the most out of ketosis.

    Whatever method you choose, remember, the key to success in health issues and weight loss is to be in touch with yourself and your body without pressure and forcing events.

    After all, in one day, or even in a week, it is impossible to change and rebuild what has been created for years and decades. And you need to be patient, and step by step, with an eye on your reactions, move in the direction of the goal that you want to achieve.

    Click image for larger version  Name:	checkmark.png Views:	33 Size:	52.9 KB ID:	303Keto safety rules

    Please, bear with this tedious but NECESSARY theory a little longer, and we will move on to practice.
    But first, however, we need to discuss safety rules.
    KETO is not allowed when:
    Violations of beta-oxidation of fatty acids
    • All types of carnitine deficiency
    * * Addison's disease-chronic adrenal insufficiency (stage 3 and 4) or hypocorticism
    * * Hereditary disorders of amino acid metabolism (aminoacidopathy)

    All these diseases are hereditary and are diagnosed in early childhood or at birth. Therefore, if you first hear about them, then you do not have them.

    In addition to direct contraindications, there are indirect ones:
    It is not recommended to start keto for the first time if you are pregnant or planning to conceive. No one has studied the effect of ketones on pregnant and nursing women, and no one knows the mechanism of action of ketones on the embryo since they penetrate the placental barrier. Although we know about the positive effects of ketones on the brain, these studies were conducted in adults.
    In this case, the solution is low-carb diets. Although, of course, there are women who combine pregnancy with keto. Here the decision is yours.

    Although the state of soft ketosis is natural for babies because the fat content of breast milk, especially for the first time, exceeds the content of carbohydrates and there is soft ketosis.

    But all studies on the positive effects of ketones on the brain have been conducted either in adults or in children with epilepsy and other neurological problems.
    Besides, both the breakdown products of ketones and the toxins released from fat depots affect us. Here are the studies:
    https/www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC3060002/

    Breast milk, as well as any other liquid in the body, can contain such toxins and breakdown products of ketone bodies (acetone). For example, alcohol easily gets into milk.

    Healthy child
    If we talk about the history of human development, periods of keto alternated with periods of food rich in carbohydrates (seasonal vegetables and fruits), and children were in the same conditions.

    The keto diet was used primarily to treat epilepsy in children, and all studies were conducted on these children, not on healthy ones. If your children are healthy, low-carb diets may be a better solution. Any gastrointestinal diseases in the period of exacerbation. You should wait for a stable remission before you start any experiments with health.

    Under the supervision of a doctor, you can smoothly enter ketosis through a low-carb diet if you suffer from:

    Kidney disease
    Thyroid disease
    Insulin-dependent type I diabetes
    Fatty liver hepatosis
    Cholecystitis and pancreatitis in the non-acute form

    Click image for larger version  Name:	checkmark.png Views:	36 Size:	52.9 KB ID:	304How to follow Keto without a gallbladder

    The main rule here is a smooth entry, that is, a slow decrease in carbohydrates in the diet while raising fat.
    On the question "KETO in the absence of bile" I will stop in more detail:
    We already know that bile is produced in the liver during the day in a volume of up to 2 liters and enters the gall bladder in portions, but it is emptied only when there is fat in the food. If the diet is "fat-free", the bile is released into the duodenum and remains in the bladder. That is, stagnation is formed, the bile is oxidized, becomes viscous, and then stones are formed. A certain number and size of stones is an indication for the removal of the gall bladder.

    Consumption of refined vegetable seed oils rich in omega-6 fatty acids also contributes to inflammatory processes.

    For those who are going to keto without a gallbladder, it is necessary to raise the fat very slowly. At the same time, at first, you may need to take certain medications containing bile acid salts and plant extracts to improve digestion.

    In addition to nutritional support, be sure to include natural probiotics in the diet, in the form of sauerkraut, as well as acidic, but having an alkaline pH, products - lemon, lime, apple cider vinegar.
    If you do not have the gall bladder, give preference to oils with an average chain length of fatty acids (MST, coconut).

    Click image for larger version  Name:	checkmark.png Views:	37 Size:	52.9 KB ID:	305Keto and cholesterol

    Many are concerned about CHOLESTEROL question.
    Why do we need cholesterol and is it harmful to eat so much fat?
    Daily carbohydrate loading makes our blood sticky with glucose, and the use of sunflower oils (sunflower, corn, soy, etc.) is the cause of inflammatory processes in the arteries. And the role of cholesterol in this sad play is just to heal damaged areas of blood vessels.

    To date, early theories about the dangers of fatty foods have been refuted. But here we are talking only about proper fatty foods and the absence of carbohydrates.

    Cholesterol is the basis of cell membranes, our sex hormones, and an essential element for the absorption of essential vitamins. And each of its "bad" or "good" types has its own functions.

    Very important for understanding is the fact that CHOLESTEROL is a molecule of our body that we eat, make, store, transform, and release in different amounts and forms and for different vital purposes.
    Most of the cholesterol we eat is not absorbed and excreted in the feces. And the cholesterol that is synthesized in the liver is the dominant source of cholesterol.

    In other words: 20% of all cholesterol from food and 80% is produced by the body itself.
    The fat that we consume with food can't be delivered to the cells by itself, it needs a carrier. Exactly the same as the insulin to glucose.

    This carrier is lipoproteins or rather apoproteins, special proteins that capture triglycerides and cholesterol molecules and deliver them throughout the body.

    Apoproteins are of 2 types: Apov (on LDL and VLDL) and Apoa-1 (on HDL particles), and each type runs its own route.

    Apoa-1 is large fluffy particles similar to cotton balls, they are soft and harmless. (HDL - "good" cholesterol) They follow their route, carrying energy for our sex and adrenal hormones (steroidogenesis), store some of the energy in fat cells (adipocytes), and then return to the liver or are excreted in the intestines.

    Here it becomes clear why fatty foods are so important for a person.
    Apolipoprotein B (those on " bad " cholesterol) are smaller and harder. They carry energy (triglycerides) for muscles and phospholipids, which are responsible for maintaining cell structure and renewing damaged liver, skin, and blood vessels.

    Here we see that the function of " bad " or LDL cholesterol is not so bad - it is a patch for our internal injuries and energy.

    After delivering the energy to its intended destination, Apolipoprotein B is returned to the liver, where it is processed and/or compacted, depending on the degree of damage (oxidation in toxic and sweet blood from glucose).

    The higher the blood sugar level, the more toxic it is to Apolipoprotein B, and the more damaged it becomes. Damaged Apolipoprotein B becomes more solid and sticky, decreasing in size, and its number increases, so the risk of cardiovascular disease increases.

    If you translate information about the size and density of Apov from medical to understandable English, it looks like this: there are 2 sizes of balls: balls for tennis and balls for ping pong. If you pour both types of balls into the same buckets to the edges, then the bucket with tennis balls (due to their larger size) will have fewer of them. While in a bucket filled with ping-pong balls, with their smaller diameter, there will be more of them.

    This means that having smaller particles, you will have a much larger number of particles carrying the same amount of cholesterol.

    What is the risk of cardiovascular diseases
    The main factor influencing the increase in small and dense Apov is the consumption of carbohydrates: sugar and especially fructose (as part of confectionery and beverages)
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov/pubmed/21849529
    These studies, on the contrary, show a decrease in the number of Apov particles in low-carb diets
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov/pubmed/19082851

    Click image for larger version  Name:	checkmark.png Views:	36 Size:	52.9 KB ID:	306Another horror story associated with keto is KETOACIDOSIS

    Quite often, just hearing the same root - "KETO", they begin to confuse these two completely different states.

    As already seen from the name "Acidosis" goes from "Acid-acid". This is a state of blood acidification as a result of the very high production of ketone bodies. Levels can reach up to 15-25 mmol. Whereas in food ketosis, the optimal level of ketones is 1.5-3 mmol, and in medical ketosis, 3-6 mmol.

    And this state of metabolic disorder is impossible in a person who can produce insulin even in small amounts.

    And we can, so we have a protective mechanism called a feedback loop that prevents the achievement of such high levels of ketones by stimulating the production of insulin.
    Increasing insulin suppresses the production of ketone bodies and the acidification process stops.

    Keto and thyroid
    In this study, the relationship between low levels of the T3 hormone and life expectancy is considered.
    Therefore, probably another point can be added to the benefits of keto nutrition, along with weight loss and improved health, - an increase in life expectancy.

    Hair, cycle and keto
    Most of the problems with hair and cycle in women that occur on keto are the result of stress (metabolic or psychological).
    Hair loss in a state of stress, shock, or traumatic event is called "telogen effluvium" and is explained by the fact that the hair goes through 3 stages of growth: active growth (anagen), a transient stage (catagen), and a resting phase (telogen).

    With any dietary changes, but especially with a sharp restriction of calories, less hair appears in the first stage of active growth, which means that less hair falls into the next two stages.

    Many people expect instant results, so they minimize both the caloric content of the diet and the number of carbohydrates, naively believing that this will have a positive impact on the dynamics of weight loss, but in the end, as a result of a large calorie deficit, the number of hair becomes less.

    Any sudden change in the usual diet is stressful for the body. Both the hair and the cycle will react sharply to it.

    Another likely cause of hair loss or lack of active growth is a lack of protein since hair consists mainly of protein structures.

    During the first couple of months, there may be fluctuations in the cycle compared to the usual diet, see how you feel, but no more than two periods.

    And after three, four months of steady ketosis by the selection method, you can raise the number of pure carbohydrates to a comfortable level that will allow you to remain in ketosis. As a rule, this is plus 5-7-10 grams of pure carbohydrates.

    Don't make a big calorie deficit.

    Do not limit the protein by reading articles about the inclusion of mechanisms of gluconeogenesis (the formation of glucose from non-carbohydrate compounds).

    This mechanism is triggered if you exceed your protein allowance by 2-5 times in a single meal. Therefore, keep the protein stable, depending on your needs and physical activity:
    within 1-1. 2 gr without sports
    1.5-1.5 gr if you train

    Intense physical activity on the background of the beginning of keto, as a rule, also lead to problems with hair. Are you going to enter ketosis? Then take a break from the gym for 5-4 weeks. Home warm-up, stretching, yoga, walking is the best solution for this period.

    Just believe me and don't try to check.
    And of course, master the techniques of meditation and relaxation. After all, they are useful not only on keto.

    Click image for larger version  Name:	checkmark.png Views:	36 Size:	52.9 KB ID:	307Keto and liver

    Studies have shown that keto has a therapeutic effect on improving
    liver health
    As a rule, non-alcoholic fatty liver hepatosis occurs as a result of an inflammatory reaction and the accumulation of fat in liver cells in combination with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and obesity.

    And since keto is just an indication for the treatment of these diseases, the liver condition improves markedly on keto. To support the liver, the keto diet contains dark leafy vegetables rich in magnesium and potassium, as well as apple cider vinegar or alkaline (lime/lemon) water.
    The last part of the theory and we'll move on to the action!

    About the tests
    You do not need to take special tests before starting keto. But if you want to track changes in certain indicators, then, of course, you can do it first, and then track the dynamics of two or better three months.
    Here's the list:
    General blood analysis and detailed (blood biochemistry, lipid profile)
    IFA blood Test for leptin
    Analysis for C-reactive protein will indicate the presence of an inflammatory process
    Insulin (according to the Kraft scheme) it is more informative than fasting glucose
    Hormones + thyroid ultrasound
    Ultrasound examination of abdominal cavity organs (liver, gallbladder, pancreas)
    Now about what indicators will be informative on keto and how to interpret them.
    After all, the reference values of most of them are based on glucose metabolism
    The most exciting question is, of course, cholesterol
    In the analysis of the lipid profile, determine: total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, LDL, HDL, atherogenicity index.

    There is an extended lipid profile, it will show LDL (very low-density lipoproteins), oxidized LDL. As well as the number of Apoa and Apov proteins, but will not say anything about the quality and size of these proteins.

    Only nuclear magnetic resonance can measure the size of each lipoprotein particle.

    Therefore, we look at the dynamics of indicators
    - Triglycerides-should be reduced by keto
    - LDL - should show a decrease
    - HDL-growth

    Calculate your CVD risk index by dividing TG by HDL
    If your tests are in mg / DL, then focus on these values
    Above 4 mg/DL is very bad. 2 or lower-excellent
    If in mmol / l, then these
    Higher than 1.7 mmol / l is bad. 0.8 and below - it's all right

    But some people (0.5% of the population) have a hereditary, usually familial disease-Tangier's disease, the so-called isolated deficiency of good cholesterol when HDL is greatly reduced or absent, and large amounts of triglyceride esters (TG) accumulate in the tissues. Such people are prone to developing atherosclerosis at a young age.

    http// There is also a mutation of the AoE gene, which also shows a very high level of cholesterol in the tests.
    In this case, you should follow a keto diet with an emphasis on unsaturated fats - olive oil, avocado oil, macadamia oil.

    Analysis for C-reactive protein in the norm up to 1
    Glucose level 3.2-5.5 mmol / l
    Insulin on an empty stomach 5 mked/ml

    The norm of thyroid hormones on low-carb diets may differ from the generally accepted norms. Since keto is a fairly young nutritional system (outside of the context of treatment of neurological diseases), doctors (as yet) simply do not have reference values of hormones and other markers for assessing the state within the framework of keto.

    Reducing the number of carbohydrates in the diet leads to a decrease in the level of T3, because the body simply regulates the production of the hormone for a new amount of carbohydrates, while the amount of T4 does not change, and TTG increases slightly

    The non-critical indicator of the excess of TTG over previous analyses is + 1.5-2 med/L
    TTG reference for people over 14 years of age 0.4-4 med/l, for keto < 4.5
    This is the end of numbers and horror stories!

    Click image for larger version  Name:	checkmark.png Views:	34 Size:	52.9 KB ID:	308How to enter Ketosis

    Back in the 5th century BC, Lao Tzu, an ancient Chinese philosopher said:
    "Even a journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step»
    And the first step to changing health is to GIVE up CARBOHYDRATES, which have traditionally formed the basis of nutrition. This will take time.

    If you've been practicing low-carb diets for some time, great! This step has already been made for you, and if only last week you learned about keto, then start today.

    Do this gradually. This is not a race for speed, especially when it comes to making changes for life. I hope you have read the security section carefully.

    Do not rush to lose weight at any cost. Take your time to enter ketosis.
    Changes are sure to come, even if you eat a low-carb diet during the month allotted for the program!
    The main thing is that you will have information, an understanding of the process and a plan, and at what pace to move, you decide for yourself!

    The first step is followed by the second - make friends with vegetables and herbs. Find your favorite combinations and enjoy their taste and cooking process.

    The third step is to gradually add the right fats to your diet. Add a piece of butter to the meat, an extra spoonful of olive oil to the salad, or add chopped nuts, sesame seeds, and pumpkin seeds to the greens. Try the popular bulletproof coffee or tea with butter. Well, the classic keto - avocado, scrambled eggs, bacon. Just don't make this combination the basis of your menu.

    Start your day with a savory breakfast. Even though the sweeteners we use on keto do not affect the level of sugar and insulin, they "disturb" our brain with a sweet taste, and during the day you will experience a craving for "something like that...»

    Use both animal and vegetable fats at the same time. Heated animal fats are ideal for cooking, and unrefined vegetable fats are ideal for salads.

    Surround yourself with fatty foods. The more fat options you have within reach, the easier it will be for you to get fat in macros. A small handful of nuts, a piece of cheese, olives, a spoonful of butter, half an avocado, or a couple of boiled quail eggs are ideas for snacking on a fire case.

    During the transition period, give up alcohol! It inhibits all processes, including fat burning, as it is toxic. First of all, the body will get rid of alcohol, not fat!

    Avoid snacking*. Proper fatty foods saturate for a long time, and you can easily survive from breakfast to lunch. Your hunger for a couple of hours after a meal in 90% of cases - thirst! And the body can signal this way if you didn't drink enough yesterday. Drink water and after 10-15 minutes, evaluate the sensations.
    * people with leptin resistance should not take long breaks between meals.

    Always keep track of your body's reactions to foods and cooking methods, especially if you have allergies and food intolerances. There is a food diary for this.

    Take measurements of your body, enter them in the results tracking table, take a picture in a swimsuit before starting a new meal, then repeat the photo and measurements in 2 weeks, and I'm sure you will be very surprised and happy with the results.

    Do not get on the scales every week, and even more so, every day! Weight is not the main indicator! After the first 2 weeks, the weight may stop decreasing at the same rate, but the volume will go away. Focus on them and how you feel!
    Ready Steady Go!

    Start keto on Thursday of the first day of the suggested diet.
    By Friday morning, you will have a 12-hour head start on burning your remaining carbohydrate stores while you slept at night.

    On Friday, eat according to the plan, and on Saturday morning, do a general cleaning of the house ))) or go on a hike (but if only if you feel well). The more intensively you work, the faster the remaining glycogen and glucose in the heat will burn, it speeds up the process.

    Be sure to drink more water, and even better keto-lemonade

    Keto lemonade recipe

    1 liter of water, 1 tablespoon of fresh lemon juice, 1 teaspoon of salt

    The first two days on keto are quite difficult.
    Your body used glucose for energy and will require the return of carbohydrates. Therefore, you may feel mood changes: you may become moody, tired, or dizzy.

    The more acute your symptoms, the deeper you sat on the sugar-carbohydrate needle.
    Not worry. This state is not long. Your body's glucose reserves are limited to a maximum of 2 days and soon you will start burning fat and protein from food to produce energy.

    Until the next weekend, try to rest more
    At this time, take more care of yourself and avoid stressful situations, if possible.
    * Try to eat at home self-prepared food
    * Treat yourself: pick up some new books, magazines.
    * Try the SPA, hot sauna, massage or go for a walk
    Of course, in the first few days, it is desirable to eat at home self-cooked food. After all, you are 100% sure of the ingredients.
    But if you have guests or a family dinner planned for the weekend at a restaurant, don't panic and don't cancel your plans - here are some tips.

    - Choose meat or fish as a whole piece. This makes it less likely that there will be starch or bread inside
    - Always ask for the sauce separately and do not use it
    -Choose grilled vegetables as a side dish
    - Ask for an extra portion of olive oil in a salad or butter with meat/vegetables
    - Some restaurants have a "Pick it yourself" option-make your keto salad according to your taste: greens, eggs, olives, vegetables, avocado, bacon, and olive oil
    - Don't order deep-fried food. As a rule, they are all with breading and starch, for a crisp, reusable deep-frying oil
    - Even in burger places, there are options for burgers without buns
    Well, in the end, you can just not eat a bun
    - If you are invited to visit but do not know in advance about the menu, then have a little snack at home with your keto food.
    - If the situation allows (without the risk of causing a deadly insult to the hostess), take something of your own to visit
    - Give up dessert in favor of fragrant herbal tea or coffee with cream (without syrup and alcohol)
    In general, don't look at keto as a strict restriction and deprivation. It's time to get acquainted with new products and tastes! Experiment!

    Click image for larger version  Name:	checkmark.png Views:	38 Size:	52.9 KB ID:	309You are in Ketosis. Measurements. Factors affecting ketosis

    Already within 3-4-6 days without the same amount of carbohydrates, sufficient for the entire body to work, the body will begin to break down the fat that comes with food. That is, it will switch to ketogenesis and the production of ketone bodies.

    After a while, you may feel a sweet-fruity taste in your mouth, and those close to you will tell you that you smell like a nail polish remover - this is a sign of ketosis.

    You are constantly thirsty. You don't feel hungry. You have a good steady mood, not associated with fluctuations in blood sugar and a clear mind.

    These are the main signs that you have entered ketosis.

    Someone "takes off like a rocket" in ketosis, and someone does not feel such a huge rise, but on the contrary notes a stable and steady flow of energy during the day. This also happens. Some note that you have to go to the manicure more often, the varnish does not hold well because of the acetone released.
    You can use the devices to learn about the production of ketones, or you can rely on your feelings. I don't have a blood tester, I don't have stripes, and I never had. It was my conscious choice. Because I realized that I didn't want to add stress to my life (I had enough of it with counting macros).

    But I know when I'm in ketosis, and when I'm not, by checking my feelings and well-being. First of all, the lack of hunger and clarity of thoughts in the head.

    If you decide to measure ketones, remember that their levels are not constant and can change during the day under the influence of various factors.

    Therefore, measure at the same time!

    For the analysis of blood:
    In the morning due to high cortisol - lowered
    By the evening, cortisol begins to decrease, and ketones increase
    During training, they decrease again
    If you measure ketones in the urine, then here is this study https://www.ncbi.nLm.nih.gcv/pmc/articles/PMC5097355/

    On the contrary, it is noted that the highest concentration of ketone bodies in the urine is detected in the morning, and by the evening there are fewer ketones.
    A slight decrease is also observed after a meal.

    An evening measurement of ketones can give you an understanding of how your daily diet and activity affect your ketosis.

    Other factors also influence ketone levels:
    from the use of MCT and coconut oil, interval fasting, ketones increase.
    During training, the concentration of ketones decreases.
    If you measure, then answer the question: "Why do I do this?»
    To establish the fact of ketosis in weight loss? "okay, a couple of times a week will be enough. Don't turn into a maniac.

    Basically, measurements are used to track individual reactions to products. Usually, athletes must choose their protein norm. Or people with insulin resistance, to adapt the diet to suit themselves depending on the individual reaction to the products.
    Light ketosis up to 1 mmol / l
    Food ketosis - 1,5-3 mmol / l
    Treatment ketosis- 4-6 mmol / l

    The fact that the process of ketogenesis is underway is indicated not only by the level of ketones in the blood but also by the level of glucose and insulin.

    The optimal glucose level for keto is 3-5 mmol / l, but sometimes it can be higher (up to 6-7 mmol / l). This is because glucose is pushed by the muscles into the blood. In this case, it is necessary to measure insulin. If it is low, then everything is fine.

    The strips are usually informative for the first two weeks until the body uses all the ketones, and they are partially discharged into the urine.

    After that, as a rule, they are no longer defined. But everything is individual.
    On the Internet, I met information that cheap breathalyzers from AliExpress can be used to measure ketones. This is due to a not very sensitive sensor (seven conductor), which confuses exhaled acetone and ethanol.

    The reference values are 0.5-3 mmol / l

    Stress has a huge impact on ketosis. Stress increases cortisol and insulin levels. And this couple suppresses the production of ketone bodies, inhibits fat burning, and leads to weight gain.
    Stress is not only emotional but also caused by intense training and a large calorie deficit or lack of sleep.

    A lot has been written about the amount and quality of sleep. About circadian rhythms, about deep and surface phases, and so on. Considering the importance of sleep for keto, let's look at the processes that occur at the level of hormones.

    Chronic lack of sleep or poor sleep quality is a source of constant stress. Chronic stress = high cortisol. The effect of cortisol is described above.

    When we go to bed on time (ideally at 22 to be already in bed, and to fall asleep by 23), the sleep hormone-melatonin, is produced in sufficient quantities. In addition to regulating the circadian rhythms of the body, it affects the saturation hormone - Leptin.

    Low melatonin = Low leptin = no saturation signal. Although very high leptin is the same, this already applies to the problem of leptin resistance. Watch your appetite in terms of the amount and quality of sleep. You will notice a direct link.

    That is why it is so important to fall asleep before 23 hours!

    Click image for larger version  Name:	checkmark.png Views:	34 Size:	52.9 KB ID:	310Keto flu – symptoms and remedy. Adaptation and minerals

    Entering ketosis, as you have already seen, is not difficult. All the fun begins after)

    The body, which has been working on glucose for decades, will have to earn how to use another type of fuel effectively. Adaptation (rearrangement of metabolism) occurs in different ways for everyone.

    The duration, symptoms, and their consequences are very individual. And during this period, it is very important to relax as much as possible and start listening and understanding your body.
    Although many people are waiting for and fear keto flu, its symptoms are not as terrible as you imagine and not everyone has these symptoms.

    If you drink enough water, take minerals, then they may not be at all.

    Instead of being afraid of headaches and cramps, start listening more carefully to your feelings.
    Almost all symptoms of keto flu are associated with an imbalance of minerals (electrolytes).
    Keto has a diuretic effect on the body. You start losing a lot of water.

    The first 3-4-6 kg (of course, depending on the initial weight) is water, or more precisely, it is edema created by the use of carbohydrates.

    Along with the slimming effect of the drained water, the main minerals are washed out: Potassium, Magnesium, Sodium, and Calcium. This is due to a decrease in insulin, which regulates the amount of water and Sodium held through the kidneys.

    At first, I recommend taking minerals extra. Especially if you start to feel dizzy, muscle and headaches, cramps and problems falling asleep. Later, if you have a balanced diet, most of the minerals can be obtained from food. 

    Potassium-regulates and maintains the volume of intracellular fluid, as well as pulse transmission functions. (This is why it is called an electrolyte)

    Lack of potassium - headaches, high blood pressure, muscle weakness and spasms, constipation, irritability, dry skin, arrhythmia. The optimal level of Potassium is 2000-3000 mg/day. In conditions of increased physical and mental loads up to 4000-5000 mg per day.

    Potassium is found in broccoli, spinach, and other dark leafy greens, mushrooms, and wild fish. For example, 200 g of broccoli = 600 mg of potassium
    Potassium in supplements:
    The powdered form of potassium is preferable to that in tablets. But if the potassium is in gelatin capsules, then you can open it and dissolve the contents in water.
    The most digestible Form: citrate or gluconate.
    Reception: after eating Breakfast/Lunch or even better, dissolve the powder in a bottle of water and drink evenly throughout the day.

    The fourth most important mineral for the body, which affects the nerves, muscles, and digestion, as it is an assistant molecule for biochemical transformations in the body.
    The daily dose of Magnesium is 320 mg for women and 430 mg for men.

    But magnesium is one of the minerals that are difficult to sort out. Because its level is very well regulated by the kidneys, and in case of excess is excreted in the urine.

    If you have dizziness, constant fatigue, muscle spasms, especially during sleep-these are symptoms of a lack of this mineral.

    Natural sources of magnesium are dark chocolate, wild fish, dark leafy vegetables (spinach, beet tops, Brussels sprouts, broccoli), offal, pumpkin, sesame and sunflower seeds, almonds, hazelnuts, and cocoa.
    By the way, magnesium reduces the production of uric acid and oxalates (oxalic acid salts), deposits of calcium stones. This is for those who are afraid of kidney stones when eating sorrel and spinach.

    The most digestible forms: glycinate-does not have a laxative effect, but a more pronounced hypnotic
    Citrate (if you have constipation on keto - 600-800 mg at night and you will have morning happiness )
    Reception: at night

    You can also make up for the lack of magnesium by taking baths with Epsom salt, "Magnesium Active" bath salt, or magnesia powder from a pharmacy. 

    Sodium (Salt)
    For sure, everyone is afraid of salt because of the increase in pressure. And this is true... for those who eat carbohydrates. In our intercellular fluid, the 4:1 ratio of Potassium and Sodium is a perfect balance, but as a result of an incorrect diet rich in carbohydrates and processed foods, everything is exactly the opposite. Hence the risk of high blood pressure and heart problems.

    We need sodium to regulate blood volume and pressure. And it's a good guy, like cholesterol))
    In the diet of those who practice keto, 5% of the allotted carbohydrates are vegetables. Therefore, it is more likely that there is Sodium deficiency.

    At first (about a month), you can use up to 4 teaspoons of salt a day. Then go back to 1.5-2 teaspoons.
    Give preference to raw salt: gray rock, pink Himalayan, or sea salt.

    Lack of calcium threatens not only bone fragility but also fatigue and muscle weakness.
    And with age, the need for calcium increases. Up to 50 years, the dose is 800-1000 mg, over 50 - 1200 mg.
    Natural sources of calcium: wild salmon, sardines, broccoli, cheese, and dairy products, sesame seeds.
    The most digestible form: citrate, chelate, hydroxyapatite
    Reception: in the evening, it can be combined with Magnesium.

    Here are a few more deficits
    you are irresistibly drawn to
    - sweet and carbohydrate - it indicates a lack of Potassium
    - want potatoes (starchy vegetables) - vitamin B12 deficiency (add food yeast )
    - chocolate - lack of Magnesium
    - sour - lack of B4
    - alcohol, constant hunger, and a strong craving for fatty foods-deficiency of bile enzymes. Supplements will help with the bile.
    And of course, WATER is required! Train yourself to drink small portions, but constantly throughout the day.

    Once again briefly about the flu:
    Keto-flu is the body's response to depriving it of carbohydrates, a kind of detox. But its symptoms are very individual and may not appear at all.
    Support yourself with minerals during this period, more water, less stress, and loads.
    Eat until full.
    Keto flu is not the only thing that may or may not happen to you.
    During the adaptation period, other "surprises" are also possible. I agree, it doesn't sound very good)), but this can be easily handled

    Acetone breath and body odor
    What to do: drink more water.
    Unpleasant (putrid smell) - first see a doctor to rule out caries, problems with the nasopharynx, problems with the digestive tract. Then to restore the microflora, add probiotics (preferably from fermented foods) to improve digestion, taking natural Apple cider vinegar before eating.

    Occurs as an adaptation reaction to fat gain. It passes with time. Choose a comfortable amount of fat. Increase fat gradually. Take your time!
    Digestive tract disorder (constipation or diarrhea)
    Constipation is one of the most common complaints of beginners.
    And this is mainly associated with a decrease in carbohydrates. Supposedly, there is less fiber. But let's see, is this really the case?
    Yes, you eliminated the carbohydrates. But which ones? Sugar/pastries/cereals. Were they rich in fiber? - Except for buckwheat, probably not.
    You've ruled out the fruit. Yes. But have you eaten enough fruit to significantly affect your digestion and provide 100% fiber? - Doubt.

    But the diet was a lot (compared to the previous number) of vegetables rich in coarse fiber. And your intestines, accustomed for the most part to refined food, were simply not ready for such a volume of "rough" fiber. And it needs time to adapt!

    Also, fiber is soluble and insoluble.
    Soluble should exceed the use of insoluble three times!
    What to do? Keep a food diary. Drink more water, take Magnesium in citrate form. Together with vegetables, take more soluble fiber: Psyllium, fermented (pickled vegetables)

    Give yourself time to adapt.

    Constipation or a decrease in the volume? 1 kg of food in the large intestine makes 100 g. dense fecal masses.
    Since on keto, we eat less and in the amount of food, and in the number of meals, it is quite natural to reduce the volume of feces. Our intestines are designed in such a way that the urge to defecate occurs only when there is a sufficient accumulation of "waste".
    I specifically consulted about the regularity of bowel movements from a proctologist surgeon and was surprised that the norm "is to defecate once every 2 days, but the daily stool is not the norm!" What to do? Give yourself time to adapt.

    Liquid stools occur either as a reaction to a change in your diet or as a symptom of intestinal dysbiosis.
    Insufficient amounts of enzymes and bile (either as a result of an imbalance in digestion or due to the absence of a gallbladder) do not cope with the new macronutrient composition of products, so the intestine is irritated and displays what it does not like.
    What to do? If you do not have the gall, then gradually increase the fat. After consulting your doctor, add the necessary enzymes.

    If the bile is in place, then also temporarily reduce the amount of fat in the diet by adding more fermented foods, Apple cider vinegar, or lemon water.

    Difficulty falling asleep
    The cause is an imbalance of hormones. A temporary phenomenon - it comes and goes. But if it lasts longer than 2 weeks, pay attention to the number of carbohydrates in the diet. Below 20 g will not speed up your weight loss but will make collapse in the hormonal system. Keep the carbs at about 30g, then lift a little. Well, do not forget that Magnesium is usually in short supply for everyone.

    Sudden hunger
    "Sometimes it's just the brain trying to get its glucose back.
    What to do? Drink the water ))
    "Or you didn't eat enough fat." Then you can drink bulletproof coffee or just eat a spoonful of oil))
    "Or you are really hungry because you missed lunch and didn't notice it was time for dinner))
    "Or you drank very little yesterday and today." Drink water!
    Dizziness and low BLOOD pressure. Yes. The keto diet lowers blood pressure. It takes time to adapt. Be sure to top up your electrolyte balance with minerals, bone broth, or just a little salted water. Don't get up abruptly!

    Skin rashes
    Keto rash is also a temporary phenomenon. And there may be several reasons as well
    - Active fat burning releases toxins that have been stored in fat depots for years. And everything is removed through the skin. You can take sorbents for several days. But be sure to read the instructions + drink more water. This type of rash is usually inflamed.
    - Food Allergy! Remove dairy, nuts, possibly fish. Keep a food diary and track your reaction. Rash by type of urticaria
    - Excessive friction of clothing and the influence of household chemicals
    - Some note that when switching to keto food in the process of adaptation, they begin to sweat more, so there is a rash-sweating
    - Too few carbs. Raise the carbs a little and see the reaction
    - Too much protein. During the adaptation period (if there is a rash), you can try to keep the protein at a rate of 0.8 g/kg.

    Click image for larger version  Name:	checkmark.png Views:	34 Size:	52.9 KB ID:	311Problems and mistakes on the ketogenic diet
    Why I’m not losing weight on keto?

    Weight loss is not linear. You lost pounds and centimeters during the first two to three weeks at a good rate. This is a natural process of removing excess water. To move to effective fat burning, you need to fully adapt and create a small calorie deficit.

    Although some say that counting calories are not required, but only the quality of calories is important.
    That is, 500 kcal of candy is not equal to 500 kcal of salad or steak. And as the main argument why you should not count calories, they lead this: "Fat and whole foods are very dense, perfectly saturates and it is difficult to overeat."

    On the one hand, this is true. And it probably works great for those who know how to eat to satiety, and who do not have problems with the hormone leptin.

    But if the CONNECTION with the body is broken, and in the past, there were psychological problems with food or an imbalance of hormones, then the tactic OF "not COUNTING" may not work.

    Quality and quantity are important at the same time.
    1) Therefore, one of the most common causes of weight stagnation on keto is too many calories.
    If the caloric content of your diet is 20% more than the basic need - you will put aside in reserve.
    If income = expense, you remain in the same weight.
    If there is a small deficit of 100-150-200 kcal (up to 20%) - you will lose weight.
    The logical question is: "How to make a deficit?»
    - sports or increasing physical activity
    - increasing the intervals between meals (interval fasting)
    - the practice of periodic fasting
    - reducing the caloric content of the diet due to fat. Proteins and carbohydrates remain at the same level, but reducing fat even by 10 g is already a deficit of 90 kcal., and at 20-180 kcal.
    All these tools should not be used immediately, but gradually, tracking the reaction of your body. The rule is "the smoother and smaller the better".

    2) Plateau for more than 2 months due to the depletion of leptin reserves.

    This is especially true for women. The female hormonal system is more sensitive to imbalances than the male.
    Leptin receives a signal from our adipocyte fat cells. And the fewer they become, the weaker the signal. But this does not mean that you need to gain a couple of kg at once to restore sensitivity.
    You just need carbohydrate loading.
    But it should be remembered that carbohydrate loading is not "falling face down in the cake" and not ordering all the pizzas at the nearest delivery restaurant. This is a significant, but very short-term increase in complex carbohydrates in the diet for one or two days. Yes, this leads out of ketosis, but if you are already adapted, well-tuned feedback with the body, then it will not be difficult to go back to keto.
    The practice of carbohydrate loading is justified in applying after 3 or better 5-6 months of sustained ketosis.
    3) Stress. And weight loss stagnation due to stress is also very common.

    4) you came out of ketosis as a result of too many carbohydrates.
    Don't get carried away with keto baking! Check your foods for hidden carbs!

    5) Metabolic compensation as a result of too much calorie deficit.
    We have considered the most common and possible causes. And now a VERY important addition:
    It makes sense to sound the alarm and say that you do not lose weight on keto, only if your volume and weight do not decrease for more than two months! MORE than TWO MONTHS!

    Interval fasting on Keto

    Interval fasting is a great tool that can be used together with keto practice to create a calorie deficit. Fasting helps not only lose weight but also! significantly improve overall health.
    Thanks to the mechanism of AUTOPHAGY, the body is self-healing, and mitochondria (our energy centers) are updated.

    Interval fasting differs from Periodic fasting. Interval fasting is an extended time interval between meals.
    The most popular scheme is the alternation of an 8-hour full period with a 16-hour hunger.
    There is also a 1/23 scheme. When you only eat once a day.

    And periodic fasting is days without food. For example, 6 days you eat, as usual, 1 day a week full of hunger. Or 5: 2
    Or alternate every other day: the day of hunger, the day of saturation.
    Take into account that fasting can cause some problems.

    First, fasting should be a natural process, meaning you can comfortably tolerate a long absence of food.
    And if you look at the clock with impatience, when you can already eat - such starvation will be harmful.
    Introducing interval fasting too early in an attempt to speed up the weight loss process will lead to weight gain as a result of the inclusion of a metabolic compensation mechanism, so you should not include interval fasting in your keto program during the first month of adaptation.

    Get used to it, learn to listen to your body, and only then comfortably try to increase periods without food.
    SECONDLY, due to the peculiarities of the female hormonal, and especially the reproductive system, long periods of hunger inhibit, and in some cases disable the reproductive function. Because when you are hungry, reproduction is out of the question. Especially scientists do not recommend fasting in the ovulation phase for women trying to get pregnant.

    Third, fasting slows down thyroid function. Therefore, people with reduced thyroid function should practice fasting very CAREFULLY.

    And fourth, the liver produces bile during the day in a volume of up to 2 liters, but from the gall bladder, it goes to the duodenum only if there are fats in the food. If you refrain from eating for more than 24 hours, the risk of bile congestion increases. Women are more likely to form stones than men.

    Therefore, when fasting for more than 24 hours, drink choleretic herbs, or eat a little oil during the day.
    Long breaks in food are also contraindicated for people with leptin resistance.
    Well, remember that the main thing is your comfortable state.


    This terrible word FAILURE (hello, donuts)

    Be calm, just be calm!
    Failure is a normal compensatory reaction of the psyche to restrictions.
    The tighter the restrictions, the more the brain strikes.
    Many perceive keto, especially in the first month, as " everything is FORBIDDEN!»
    "Nuts - allergen
    "Bread - carbohydrates and gluten
    "Keto baking - evil
    “In the store, be careful not to let a single gram of sugar slip!"

    Well, the list can be continued...
    Yes! These are the basic rules of keto nutrition, but only your attitude to them depends on the severity of the reaction of the psyche!

    What if you look not at the ban, but at how much is allowed?
    • You can eat delicious and fatty foods.
    • You can eat until you are full.
    • You can eat when you want, not every 3 hours, " speeding up the metabolism».
    • After all, you can eat without feeling guilty.
    The diet stays the same, just a switch flicks in your head!
    Let's look at the problems of failures in terms of psychology
    Your previous bad experience in various diets further exacerbates the problem of failures and your attitude to it. The negative experience is fixed that the diet does not work, and the failure is inevitably followed by either weight gain or clenching fists.

    Here's how it happens:
    I was on a diet, I was angry and hungry, but I lost weight, then I failed the diet - I began to eat carbs, I couldn't stop, I gained weight again. In the end, I have to start all over again or be stricter. And I'm so tired, I don't want anything, I just want it to feel GOOD. And when I was not on the diet, I felt good, until the moment when I felt guilty.

    And here you are on keto, but suddenly-a failure! Subconsciously, the reaction will be this: failure is always a repeat of the previous unsuccessful experience, so I will not succeed again.

    What to do?
    Change your attitude: to yourself, to limitations, and allow yourself to relax adjust the connection with yourself to understand where you are too strict to yourself. Just allow yourself to believe in success.
    Take certain measures to prevent failures in the future

    Here are a few tactics for preventing failures:
    Shift your focus from weight to health
    Optimal health automatically leads to optimal weight. I always say that keto is primarily about health. And weight is a nice bonus. When the internal state is optimal, the process does not become difficult, it is easy.
    I'm sorry, but it is not necessary to take the eggs in the iron fist every day and wake up with a feeling like you are going to war!
    Strong faith in the result
    When there is information about biochemistry and mechanisms, there is confidence in the result, and I believe that you already have a fishing rod
    Therefore, we accept the idea of failures but focus on the fact that you already own effective tools.

    Tracking the chain of external situations that may trigger a failure.
    Our relationship with sweets has certain patterns of behavior that have been fixed since childhood. Some of them were considered in the anti-sugar marathon.

    And as a result of this fixed reaction, the hand itself reaches for food if you are upset, not satisfied... to find solace, (and by the way, it's not always a sweet cake). Therefore, try to protect yourself from such situations.

    For example, don't go to a parent-teacher meeting if you know that being there annoys you.
    Do not communicate with a friend who merges her negative on you.
    Situations are different, but to track their effects on you is not only possible but also necessary!

    Knowledge of female physiology
    The female hormone cycle is a 28-day waltz of hormones. While men's hormones are changing during the day. Women are acutely sensitive to changes in the hormonal background. Therefore, you can try to adjust your diet according to the cycle and hormones to prevent and avoid failure.

    The first phase of the cycle is Follicular. Egg maturation occurs from day 1-14. This is the phase of the hormone estrogen. In this phase, we slightly reduce the amount of carbohydrates 3-5 g, but we focus on their quality - try to use more fermented (fermented) products: Kombucha, sauerkraut, kimchi, add natural apple cider vinegar to dishes. As well as steamed food to prepare the digestive tract for other phases.
    Ovulation - the output of an egg from the ovaries and the maximum concentration of estrogen.

    You need products that help remove estrogen and this is perfectly handled by raw vegetables, salads from fresh herbs, eggs, berries, nuts-products rich in B vitamins, selenium, vitamin C.

    The luteal phase follows ovulation. Increased estrogen is balanced with high progesterone, so we have a good mood, good health, but as soon as the body understands that fertilization has not occurred, their levels begin to fall sharply and from 22-25 days we feel irritability, loss of strength and hello, PMS.
    In PMS (22-25 days), there is a craving for everything forbidden, carbohydrates. So add a little more carbohydrates to your diet. This is the perfect time for Carb Up. Do not resist nature, help yourself, include in your diet long carbohydrates and root vegetables: beets, carrots, buckwheat, and its sprouts, berries.

    Add foods rich in calcium: sesame, sea fish
    and vitamin B6 (offal, sea fish, beans, walnuts, grain sprouts (such as buckwheat), legumes, avocado.
    And magnesium, which has a beneficial effect on the nervous system.

    The lowest possible level of hormones ensures the beginning of menstrual bleeding on day 25-28. At this time, a little more fatty food and a moderate amount of protein. Magnesium, by the way, helps relieve spasms and muscle pulling pains. Lean on magnesium-containing products.

    Knowing that failure is possible, prepare products with minimal risk in advance: for example, the darkest chocolate is much better than cheesecake.

    A lifeline can be a circle of like-minded people, a psychologist, your hobby (hiking, knitting, etc.), something that supports you, switches, and calms you.

    Proactive position
    Think in advance where you may be waiting for a failure: for example, you are going on vacation: in google maps, you can preview the location of cafes and restaurants in the vicinity, and if you are lucky, and a restaurant turns out to be large or "advanced" with its site - study the menu, so you will remove the tension in advance)). Or choose a hotel with a breakfast buffet.

    The position of the victim is always dependent on the circumstances. For example: "I came to visit, and there is nothing that I can eat, so I ate what they give for fear of offending the owners or being a black sheep" Familiar?

    Take a proactive position - ask in advance what is being served. Bring your food under the pretext of helping the hostess. Or eat at home in advance.

    Harmony with yourself
    Create a good mood for yourself! To expect that someone or something will make you happy - this is also the position of the victim. Start with yourself. Internal changes trigger a cascade of external changes.
    How to act in a failure (5 minutes technique)

    Yes, you eat cake (may not be the first day) But, STOP!!! Stop for a moment. Say to yourself, " YES, I'm in a failure!»,
    A very cool psychological practice - to yell (not to mutter, namely, at the top of your voice: "YEEEES, I'm in the FAILURE!!!!!"

    Let yourself live through emotions
    Finish this piece of your cake with pleasure, and not with a sense of guilt, and maybe after the cry you will come disgust, then stop - this is also a normal reaction))

    Reduce the priority of failures
    Realizing that you ate half a watermelon is not the same as losing both legs. Very cynical, I agree! But many people perceive failure as the end of the world!

    There is always a sun behind the clouds!
    And remember that you already have all the tools for weight loss. You know how it works, and you know how to start again.
    - remember that the goal is achievable because you have already started the process, you see the result
    - remember the lifeline.

    After realizing the problem, throwing out emotions through a scream, you live the emotions (pleasure or vice versa, disgust), and reassure yourself that nothing has fallen to the ground, praise yourself for the work already done and get up from the table with the confidence that everything is achievable.
    This is the 5-minute technique!

    So, get up, start your diet again!
    I'm sure you will succeed.​
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    Last edited by Barbara Radcliffe; 08-26-2020, 10:42 AM.

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