Announcement

Collapse
No announcement yet.

Japanese Matcha Tea: Health Benefits and Harms. Scientific Research

Collapse
X
Collapse
  •  

  • Japanese Matcha Tea: Health Benefits and Harms. Scientific Research

    Click image for larger version  Name:	11.jpg Views:	0 Size:	88.8 KB ID:	1235



    Japanese matcha green tea has become incredibly popular recently. Today, it can be found in the menu of restaurants and cafes in the form of tea, lattes, and even as part of desserts, such as ice cream.

    Green tea and matcha tea we are used to have the same parent: the Camellia sinensis plant. The difference between them is in the way of cultivation, which determines the unique composition of nutrients.

    For 20-30 days before harvesting matcha tea, it is protected from direct sunlight. This enhances the production of chlorophyll, which gives the plants a dark green color. As a result, the content of some amino acids in the leaves increases.

    After collecting this tea, the stalks and veins are removed from the leaves and they are ground into a powder called matcha.


    Matcha tea powder contains nutrients from all over the tea leaf (primarily catechins and caffeine) and their concentration in it is significantly higher than in green tea. They mainly determine its useful properties.


    Below we will look at what scientific research says about the benefits and harms of Japanese matcha tea for human health.






    Useful properties of matcha tea


    1. Matcha tea is rich in antioxidants

    Antioxidants neutralize dangerous free radicals (oxidants) that damage cells and cause the development of chronic diseases.

    Free radicals are formed in the human body during metabolism and under the influence of external factors: chemical pollution, cigarette smoke, radiation, medications.

    When there are so many radicals in the body that it is not able to neutralize them, so-called oxidative stress occurs - a condition that is the main factor in the development of cancer, autoimmune diseases, cataracts, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, and aging of the body
    14.

    To fight free radicals, there are so-called antioxidants. They can be produced inside the body, as well as come from outside with food or additives. Japanese matcha tea is also a good source of them.


    Matcha tea powder has a fairly high content of catechins, which are natural antioxidants. There are significantly more of them in it than in green tea made from the same number of leaves: according to some estimates, more than 137 times15.


    In an animal experiment, it has been shown that drinking matcha tea together with fatty foods lowers the level of bad low-density cholesterol in the blood, increases the level of good low-density cholesterol, positively affects the level of glucose in the blood, and has antioxidant properties. ***






    2. Matcha tea is useful in the fight against cancer

    Matcha tea is very rich in a certain type of catechins - EGCG (epigallocatechin-3-gallate), which according to scientific data have an anti-cancer effect.

    In animal experiments, it has been shown that green tea extract (including matcha tea powder) reduces the size of tumors in breast cancer, as well as prevents the growth and reproduction of cancer cells 2.


    Green tea catechins can kill 16 cancer cells, including prostate cancer,3,21pancreatic cancer, 25 skin cancer, 24 and liver cancer. 11


    However, it should also be noted that almost all of these studies were carried out in the laboratory, in a test tube. More thorough research is needed to confirm its real effectiveness.

    Catechins contained in matcha tea powder may be useful for treating and preventing cancer






    3. Matcha tea is good for the liver

    The liver plays an important role in digestion, as well as removing toxins from the body and products of drug metabolism.

    Numerous scientific studies on the benefits and harms of matcha green tea indicate that its use reduces the risk of liver diseases, including liver cancer, hepatitis, cirrhosis, and chronic liver disease. 23,19

    The use of green tea extract improves the condition of patients with fatty liver, leading to a decrease in the levels of enzymes that are indicators of its damage 26.


    Experiments on mice with diabetes have shown the protective effect of matcha tea against liver and kidney damage, which is a common consequence of diabetes 12.


    However, it is important to understand that the effect of any products and substances on the human body is complex and requires more thorough research on the benefits and harms of matcha tea for the liver since most of the available experiments are performed on animals.

    The scientific literature describes cases of severe liver damage when drinking green tea (see the section on the harm of matcha tea).

    Scientific research suggests that Japanese matcha tea may be good for liver health. However, more thorough human studies are required






    4. Matcha tea stimulates brain function

    Drinking matcha tea powder in the form of tea or tablets can significantly improve attention, reaction time, and memory 4, including in the elderly 9.

    A possible explanation for this effect may be the content of caffeine in matcha tea, the dose of which is much higher in it than in green leaf tea: 90 mg in a cup of 300 ml 30.

    Caffeine is a stimulant of the nervous system and its use activates brain function by the same metrics: reaction time, attention, memory, learning ability 13.


    Also, matcha tea powder contains L-thianine, an amino acid that eliminates some of the side effects of caffeine, in particular, the vasoconstrictor effect and the effect on mood, which may explain the positive effects described above 7.


    L-tyanine has a direct effect on the brain, increasing the amplitude of the so-called alpha waves, which allows you to relax the brain without causing a state of drowsiness. From a practical point of view, this can mean reducing stress levels while maintaining brain activity 10 - as opposed to antidepressants.

    One of the useful properties of matcha tea is to increase attention, memory, reaction time, and cognitive function of the brain. This may be due to the content of caffeine and L-thianine in it






    5. The Benefits of matcha tea for the heart

    Cardiovascular diseases are one of the main causes of death in our time.


    Statistical studies suggest that regular consumption of green tea (including matcha tea) is associated with a lower risk of heart disease and heart attack, but not stroke. 16,27


    A likely explanation is a decrease in the level of bad low-density cholesterol in the blood of 2.19, as well as triglycerides - the main culprits of impaired patency of blood vessels due to the formation of blood clots on their walls (atherosclerosis).






    6. Matcha tea can be useful for weight loss

    Green tea extract is the active ingredient in many fat burners and has proven benefits for weight loss. The reason is still the same - catechins and caffeine.


    Matcha tea increases the rate of internal metabolism - the energy needed to maintain the vital activity of our body, which accounts for about 70% of the daily calorie consumption.


    The higher the metabolic rate, the better the conditions for weight loss.

    Scientific research suggests that matcha tea can be useful for both weight loss and weight maintenance 22.



    How effective is it?


    One of them shows that the combination of caffeine + catechins increases daily energy expenditure by about ~200 calories 17.


    Is it too much or too little?


    The value is insignificant, comparable to the caloric content of a piece of bread.

    Moreover, data from individual studies generally refute the effect or suggest that it is insignificant. 28

    The authors of a meta-analysis of available studies of the benefits of matcha tea for weight loss show significant effectiveness of green tea catechins (matcha tea) for weight loss, which on average help to lose weight by 2.8 lbs (1.3 kg), but at the same time note a very large spread of results: somewhere more, somewhere less, and in some cases - no effect 20.






    The harm of green tea matcha to human health

    Matcha tea can be harmful to health if taken for a long time and in large doses.

    This is primarily due to the caffeine content in its composition, which is higher than in green tea: approximately 90 mg in a 300 ml cup***, compared to 32 mg in a cup of green tea *** and 200 mg in a cup of cappuccino from Starbucks.***


    Side effects of excess caffeine include both relatively harmless (headaches, nervousness, sleep disorders, vomiting, diarrhea, irritability, confusion) and more serious: heart rhythm disorders, muscle cramps, heart pain.


    An overdose of caffeine can be very dangerous to health, even fatal. The lethal dose of caffeine is 10-15 g.

    In scientific literature, cases of serious liver damage (acute liver intoxication) have been recorded when using green tea and food additives containing its extract. 18,5

    The concentration of active substances in the extract is significantly higher than in green tea and matcha tea powder, however, with regular use in large doses, the risk of negative side effects can be equally high.

    Scientists emphasize that the harm of matcha tea (green tea) is determined by the same ingredients that are responsible for its beneficial properties.






    Contraindications for the use of matcha tea

    Doctors do not recommend using matcha tea, as well as other types of green tea and its extract, for children, as well as for people with liver diseases.

    It is also recommended to take it with food.

    If you experience any symptoms of liver damage (yellowing of the skin and eyes, dark urine, increased sweating and fatigue, nausea, stomach pain, loss of appetite), stop drinking matcha tea, and consult a doctor.






    Conclusion


    Main thoughts:
    • Matcha tea is a source of catechins - natural antioxidants that play an important role in the fight against chronic diseases
    • Catechins contained in matcha tea powder may be useful for treating and preventing cancer
    • Scientific research suggests that Japanese matcha tea may be good for liver health. However, more thorough human studies are required
    • One of the useful properties of matcha tea is increasing attention, memory, reaction time, and cognitive function of the brain. This may be due to the content of caffeine and L-thianine in it
    • Research confirms the benefits of matcha tea for cardiovascular health, but not for stroke control
    • Matcha tea can be useful for weight loss
    • The harm of matcha tea is determined primarily by the content of caffeine in its composition. It can be dangerous to use it for a long time in large doses. There is also a risk of liver damage


    Matcha tea powder is obtained from the same plant as our usual green tea. Unlike green tea, it has a much higher concentration of catechins and other useful substances that explain both its useful and harmful properties.


    Among the useful properties are benefits for the heart, liver, brain function, weight loss, and in the fight against cancer.


    Matcha tea is relatively safe for health, however, care should be taken, as exceeding the dosage can be harmful to liver health.



    References


    1 Shankar S, Ganapathy S, Srivastava RK. Green tea polyphenols: biology and therapeutic implications in cancer. Front Biosci. 2007 Sep 1;12:4881-99.
    2 Kavanagh KT, et al. Green tea extracts decrease carcinogen-induced mammary tumor burden in rats and the rate of breast cancer cell proliferation in culture. J Cell Biochem. 2001;82(3):387-98.
    3 Siddiqui IA, et al. Green tea polyphenol EGCG sensitizes human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and synergistically inhibits biomarkers associated with angiogenesis and metastasis. Oncogene. 2008 Mar 27;27(14):2055-63.
    4 Dietz C, et al. An intervention study on the effect of matcha tea, in drink and snack bar formats, on mood and cognitive performance. Food Res Int. 2017 Sep;99(Pt 1):72-83.
    5 Patel SS, et al. Green tea extract: a potential cause of acute liver failure. World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Aug 21;19(31):5174-7.
    6 Zheng XX, et al. Green tea intake lowers fasting serum total and LDL cholesterol in adults: a meta-analysis of 14 randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Aug;94(2):601-10.
    7 Dodd FL, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effects of caffeine and L-theanine both alone and in combination on cerebral blood flow, cognition, and mood. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2015 Jul;232(14):2563-76.
    8 Xu P, Ying L, Hong G, Wang Y. The effects of the aqueous extract and residue of Matcha on the antioxidant status and lipid and glucose levels in mice fed a high-fat diet. Food Funct. 2016 Jan;7(1):294-300. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26448271
    9 Ide K, et al. Green tea consumption affects cognitive dysfunction in the elderly: a pilot study. Nutrients. 2014 Sep 29;6(10):4032-42.
    10 Nobre AC, Rao A, Owen GN. L-theanine, a natural constituent in tea, and its effect on mental state. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:167-8.
    11 Wei DZ, Yang JY, Liu JW, Tong WY. Inhibition of liver cancer cell proliferation and migration by a combination of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and ascorbic acid. J Chemother. 2003 Dec;15(6):591-5.
    12 Yamabe N, Kang KS, Hur JM, Yokozawa T. Matcha, a powdered green tea, ameliorates the progression of renal and hepatic damage in type 2 diabetic OLETF rats. J Med Food. 2009 Aug;12(4):714-21.
    13 Tom M.McLellan, et al. A review of caffeine’s effects on cognitive, physical, and occupational performance. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, Volume 71, December 2016 , Pages 294-312.
    14 Lien Ai Pham-Huy, Hua He, and Chuong Pham-Huy. Free Radicals, Antioxidants in Disease and Health. Int J Biomed Sci. 2008 Jun; 4(2): 89–96.
    15 Weiss DJ, Anderton CR. Determination of catechins in matcha green tea by micellar electrokinetic chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2003 Sep 5;1011(1-2):173-80.
    16 Arab L, Liu W, Elashoff D. Green and black tea consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis. Stroke. 2009 May;40(5):1786-92.
    17 Bérubé-Parent S, et al. Effects of encapsulated green tea and Guarana extracts containing a mixture of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and caffeine on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in men. Br J Nutr. 2005 Sep;94(3):432-6.
    18 Molinari M, et al. Acute liver failure induced by green tea extracts: case report and review of the literature. Liver Transpl. 2006 Dec;12(12):1892-5.
    19 Jin X, Zheng RH, Li YM. Green tea consumption and liver disease: a systematic review. Liver Int. 2008 Aug;28(7):990-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2008.01776.x. Epub 2008 May 15.
    20 Hursel R, Viechtbauer W, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. The effects of green tea on weight loss and weight maintenance: a meta-analysis. Int J Obes (Lond). 2009 Sep;33(9):956-61.
    21 Gupta S, Hussain T, Mukhtar H. Molecular pathway for (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human prostate carcinoma cells. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003 Feb 1;410(1):177-85.
    22 Hursel R, Viechtbauer W, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. The effects of green tea on weight loss and weight maintenance: a meta-analysis. Int J Obes (Lond). 2009 Sep;33(9):956-61.
    23 Xueru Yin, et al. The effect of green tea intake on risk of liver disease: a meta analysis. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015; 8(6): 8339–8346.
    24 Mantena SK, Roy AM, Katiyar SK. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits photocarcinogenesis through inhibition of angiogenic factors and activation of CD8+ T cells in tumors. Photochem Photobiol. 2005 Sep-Oct;81(5):1174-9.
    25 Basu A, Haldar S. Combinatorial effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and TRAIL on pancreatic cancer cell death. Int J Oncol. 2009 Jan;34(1):281-6.
    26 Ali Pezeshki, et al. The Effect of Green Tea Extract Supplementation on Liver Enzymes in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Int J Prev Med. 2016; 7: 28.
    27 Arts IC, et al. Catechin intake might explain the inverse relation between tea consumption and ischemic heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Aug;74(2):227-32.
    28 Boschmann M, Thielecke F. The effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on thermogenesis and fat oxidation in obese men: a pilot study. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Aug;26(4):389S-395S.
    Last edited by Rebecca Nigel; 09-05-2020, 08:23 PM.

      Leave a comment

    UNCONFIGURED AD WIDGET

    Collapse

    Unconfigured Ad Widget

    Collapse

    Unconfigured Ad Widget

    Collapse

    Categories

    Collapse

    Article Tags

    Collapse

    Related Topics

    Collapse

    • How Keto Diet Cures Psoriasis – explained in simple words with scientific references
      by Andrew Stuart


      Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory dermatological disorder characterized by rough, itchy, red patches with silvery scales on the surface of the skin. There are several types of psoriasis that vary in prevalence and manifestations.

      The most common type is plaque psoriasis, which has localized and well-demarcated lesions. It can appear on any part of the body, but mostly develops on the scalp, knees, elbows, and lower back. Guttate psoriasis is the second most common type
      ...
      04-01-2020, 09:41 AM
    • How to Lose Belly Fat Without Exercise - Natural and Science-based Approach
      by Elizabeth Dawson




      It is widely believed that to lose belly fat, you simply need to do as many abs exercises as possible.


      It's safe to say that this will definitely help build strong abs... which, however, no one will be able to evaluate until you will not remove fat from your belly.


      Strong abdominal muscles not only create an attractive appearance, improve your self-esteem. They also stabilize the spine, relieving stress and reducing the likelihood
      ...
      09-27-2020, 06:03 AM
    • How Keto Diet Reverses Rheumatoid Arthritis
      by Andrew Stuart


      Rheumatoid Arthritis is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system of the body targets its own cells. It manifests as chronic inflammation in the body - exhibiting mainly as pain in the joints - that affects nearly 1 percent of the worldwide population.

      However, the exact cause behind this disease is not absolutely clear, but it can be associated with genetic, hormonal, or environmental factors. Due to this ambiguity of the accurate reason behind it, finding a productive
      ...
      04-07-2020, 08:44 AM
    • How Sugar Harms Our Brain
      by Rick Clevenger



      Avoiding sweets can improve your mental performance

      White death and the source of all the troubles of modern man, sugar, both refined and unrefined, is often criticized by nutritionists and doctors. The list of his "crimes" includes obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, caries, and much more.

      However, less often people talk about the negative impact of sugar on a person's cognitive abilities – and this is probably the most telling point
      ...
      05-24-2020, 05:55 AM
    • Bodybuilding: How to Build Muscle Without Carbs on Keto Diet
      by Addy Williams
      It is a very renowned myth, even among the intellectual elite of bodybuilders, that carbohydrates are imperative for muscle building. Meanwhile, the role of the ketogenic diet has been ignored.

      However, this misconception is totally based on a lack of knowledge as reality is far from it. In actual fact, the keto diet is well and truly equally beneficial, even it helps boost strength and build muscles with greater efficiency while keeping fats at an almost negligible level.
      ...
      02-23-2020, 04:44 PM

    Latest Articles

    Collapse

    • The Keto Diet - a Diet for Longevity? What Science Says
      by Deborah Carbine





      For nearly a hundred years, scientists have been researching a method to slow down aging by reducing dietary calorie intake.

      Experiments on a variety of organisms, from yeast to rhesus monkeys, have shown that life expectancy can be increased if energy consumption is reduced by 10–30%.

      The mechanisms of this phenomenon are still under discussion, but it seems that it is based on a shift in metabolic processes from carbohydrate metabolism
      ...
      02-21-2021, 02:17 PM
    • For the First Time, the WHO Recommended Physical Activity for Those Who Sit a Lot
      by Deborah Carbine




      A sedentary lifestyle, compounded by the pandemic's quarantine, increases the likelihood of premature death. However, this harm to health can be compensated for by increased physical activity, experts from the World Health Organization write.

      The advice to lead a more active lifestyle and spend more time on exercise to maintain health is hardly a medical breakthrough, but this is the first time such advice is being made at the level of the World Health Organization.
      ...
      02-21-2021, 08:42 AM
    • Propolis (Bee Glue): Antibacterial, Anti-inflammatory, Antiviral and Antioxidant Properties
      by Deborah Carbine






      Bee glue (PROPOLIS) has been used for medicinal purposes since ancient times. In modern scientific medicine, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, antileishmanial, immuno-modulating, and other properties of propolis have been determined.

      Due to these properties, propolis dosage forms have been successfully used in the treatment of burn wounds, otitis media, Peyronie's disease, lung diseases, viral diseases of the genitourinary
      ...
      02-20-2021, 09:12 PM
    • Emanuel Revici - a 101-year-old Doctor Who Cured Cancer and Other Serious Incurable Diseases
      by Antony Convey


      Emanuel Revici, MD, was born in 1898 and died in 1998 at the age of 101


      Since then, as doctors learned to separate the symptoms of cancer from the manifestations of other diseases, it is perceived as perhaps the most formidable disease for people.

      Although medicine is constantly evolving, and oncology also has its own achievements, the methods of chemotherapy and radiation therapy used in medical institutions do not help everyone.

      Moreover,
      ...
      02-20-2021, 12:13 PM
    • Bowel Movement on Keto: Everything You Need to Know About Defecation When You Are on a Low-Carb, High-Fat Diet
      by Antony Convey










      It is tempting to hide in this text behind jokes like “shit happens” and “princesses don't poop”. But if you ignore the topic of bowel movements, then you can skip serious health problems.

      Let's not be prudes! We suggest learning how to read about the health of the body by color, consistency, and other distinctive features of feces.







      How often do you poop?
      ...
      02-15-2021, 09:31 AM
    • Vitamins for Maintaining Muscle Mass and Muscle Function in the Elderly
      by Antony Convey






      Muscle mass begins to decline after age 30 at a rate of 3% per decade. It seems to be a trifle and at this age is completely invisible. After 50, muscle loss is about 1% of skeletal muscle mass each year and upon reaching the age of 60, this process accelerates significantly.

      Even more annoying, there is less muscle and more fatty tissue. Between the ages of 30 and 60, the average person annually loses 0.5 lbs (0.23 kg) of muscle and instead
      ...
      02-09-2021, 08:30 AM
    • The Main Reasons for Weight Gain and Obesity. How to Start Losing Weight Properly
      by Antony Convey






      How we get used to things that don't work


      We are taught that the main reasons for being overweight are a lot of food and little exercise. And this is not to mention the allegedly weak willpower! But it's not that simple. Because if this mantra worked flawlessly, then there would be no more problem of excess weight, right? After all, everyone who is overweight, at least once, tried to follow this advice!

      Now it is more fashionable
      ...
      02-05-2021, 08:27 AM
    • Top 8 Myths About Immunity
      by Antony Convey





      The very concept of "immunity" was born in the 19th century thanks to the French microbiologist Louis Pasteur and the Russian scientist I. Mechnikov.

      At first, however, immunity was understood as the body's immunity to infectious diseases.

      But already from the middle of the 20th century, as a result of research work, it was proved that immunity protects the body not only from microbes but also from any other genetically foreign
      ...
      02-04-2021, 09:20 AM
    • A History of the Study of Life Extension Products
      by David Glick





      Life extension is a problem of all times and peoples.

      In evolution, this problem appears namely in humans. Realizing the immortality of living nature due to the reproduction of mortal organisms and possessing the instinct of self-preservation and survival, man has always tried to resolve this contradiction between life and death.

      Mankind in all epochs has shown a heightened interest in the means of preserving youth, health, and achieving
      ...
      02-01-2021, 05:04 PM
    • What Fruits Can I Eat on the Keto Diet?
      by Antony Convey



      Let's take a look at the most painful keto question - can we eat fruit on the ketogenic diet?

      On keto, we avoid fruits and allow ourselves a small amount of berries. No keto rule raises so many questions and protests. “Fruits are vitamins! We have eaten them from time immemorial!

      What about antioxidants, flavonoids, and other beneficial substances? Microbiota! What does it eat? " - beginners are lost. “Fruits contain fructose, and fructose
      ...
      02-01-2021, 02:55 PM

    Trending

    Collapse

    There are no results that meet this criteria.

    Working...
    X